Linux

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=== Commercial and popular uptake ===
=== Commercial and popular uptake ===
{{Main|Linux adoption}}
{{Main|Linux adoption}}
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Today Linux distributions are used in numerous domains, from [[embedded system]]s to [[supercomputer]]s,<ref>{{cite web | title = Linux system development on an embedded device | url = http://www-128.ibm.com/developerworks/library/l-embdev.html | first = Anand | last = Santhanam | coauthors = Vishal Kulkarni | work = DeveloperWorks | publisher = IBM | date = 1 March 2002 | accessdate = 2007-07-26 }}</ref><ref>{{cite web| last = Lyons | first = Daniel| title = Linux rules supercomputers | url = http://www.forbes.com/home/enterprisetech/2005/03/15/cz_dl_0315linux.html | accessdate = 2007-02-22}}</ref> and have secured a place in [[server (computing)|server]] installations with the popular [[LAMP (software bundle)|LAMP]] application stack.<ref>{{cite web| last = Schrecker| first = Michael| title = Turn on Web Interactivity with LAMP | url = http://www.techsoup.org/learningcenter/webbuilding/page5067.cfm | accessdate = 2007-02-22}}</ref> Use of Linux distributions in home and enterprise desktops has been expanding.<ref name="galli2007">{{cite news | first=Peter | last=Galli | coauthors= | title=Vista Aiding Linux Desktop, Strategist Says | date=[[2007-08-08]] | publisher=Ziff Davis Enterprise Inc. | url =http://www.eweek.com/c/a/Linux-and-Open-Source/Vista-Aiding-Linux-Desktop-Strategist-Says/ | work =eWEEK | pages = | accessdate = 2007-11-19 | language = }}</ref><ref name="paul2007">{{cite news | first=Ryan | last=Paul | coauthors= | title=Linux market share set to surpass Win 98, OS X still ahead of Vista | date=[[2007-09-03]] | publisher=Ars Technica, LLC | url =http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20070903-linux-marketshare-set-to-surpass-windows-98.html | work =Ars Technica | pages = | accessdate = 2007-11-19 | language = }}</ref><ref name="beer2007">{{cite news | first=Stan | last=Beer | coauthors= | title=Vista to play second fiddle to XP until 2009: Gartner | date=[[2007-01-23]] | publisher=iTWire | url =http://www.itwire.com.au/content/view/8842/53/ | work =iTWire | pages = | accessdate = 2007-11-19 | language = }}</ref><ref name="applications2007"> {{cite web|url=http://marketshare.hitslink.com/report.aspx?qprid=2&qpmr=15&qpdt=1&qpct=3&qptimeframe=Y |title=Operating System Marketshare for Year 2007 |accessdate=2007-11-19 |date=2007-11-19 |work=Market Share |publisher=Net Applications }}</ref><ref name="xitimonitor2007">{{cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=Vista slowly continues its growth; Linux more aggressive than Mac OS during the summer | date=[[2007-09-24]] | publisher=AT Internet/XiTi.com | url =http://www.xitimonitor.com/en-us/internet-users-equipment/operating-systems-august-2007/index-1-2-7-107.html | work =XiTiMonitor | pages = | accessdate = 2007-11-19 | language = }}</ref><ref name="globalstats2007"> {{cite web|url=http://www.w3counter.com/globalstats.php |title=Global Web Stats |accessdate=2007-11-19 |date=2007-11-10 |work=W3Counter |publisher=Awio Web Services LLC }}</ref><ref name="zeitgeist2004"> {{cite web|url=http://www.google.com/press/zeitgeist/zeitgeist-jun04.html |title=June 2004 Zeitgeist |accessdate=2007-11-19 |date=2004-08-12 |work=Google Press Center |publisher=Google Inc. }}</ref> They have also gained popularity with various local and national governments. The federal government of Brazil is well known for its support for Linux.<ref>{{cite web | url = http://news.cnet.com/Brazils-love-of-Linux/2009-1042_3-6245409.html | title = Brazil's love of Linux | accessdate = 2009-02-21 }}</ref><ref>{{cite news | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/3445805.stm | title = Brazil falls in love with Linux | accessdate = 2009-02-21 }}</ref> News of the Russian military creating their own Linux distribution has also surfaced.<ref>{{cite web | url = http://www.osor.eu/news/lv-minister-open-standards-improve-efficiency-and-transparency | title = LV: Minister: "Open standards improve efficiency and transparency" | accessdate = 2009-02-21 }}</ref> Indian state of [[Kerala]] has gone so far as to make it mandatory for all state high schools to run Linux on their computers.<ref>{{cite web | url = http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/sep2006/gb20060921_463452.htm | title = Linux Spreads its Wings in India | accessdate = 2009-02-21 }}</ref><ref>{{cite web | url = http://www.indianexpress.com/news/kerala-shuts-windows-schools-to-use-only-linux/280323/0 | title = Kerala shuts windows, schools to use only Linux | accessdate = 2009-06-22 }}</ref> [[People's Republic of China|China]] uses Linux exclusively as the operating system for its [[Loongson]] processor family to achieve technology independence.<ref>{{cite web | url = http://www.mdronline.com/watch/watch_Issue.asp?Volname=Issue+%23110308&on=1 | title = China’s Microprocessor Dilemma | accessdate = 2009-04-15 | publisher = [[Microprocessor Report]] }}</ref> In [[Spain]] some regions have developed their own Linux distributions, which are widely used in education and official institutions, like [[gnuLinEx]] in [[Extremadura]] and [[Guadalinex]] in [[Andalusia]]. [[France]] and [[Germany]] have also taken steps towards the adoption of Linux.<ref>{{cite web | url = http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/business/48925_linuxop01.shtml | title = Some countries are choosing Linux systems over Microsoft | accessdate = 2009-02-21 }}</ref>
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Today Linux distributions are used in numerous domains, from [[embedded system]]s to [[supercomputer]]s, and have secured a place in [[server (computing)|server]] installations with the popular [[LAMP (software bundle)|LAMP]] application stack.Use of Linux distributions in home and enterprise desktops has been expanding.They have also gained popularity with various local and national governments. The federal government of Brazil is well known for its support for Linux.News of the Russian military creating their own Linux distribution has also surfaced.Indian state of [[Kerala]] has gone so far as to make it mandatory for all state high schools to run Linux on their computers. People's Republic of China uses Linux exclusively as the operating system for its Loongson processor family to achieve technology independence. In Spain some regions have developed their own Linux distributions, which are widely used in education and official institutions, like gnuLinEx in Extremadura and Guadalinex in Andalusia. France and Germany have also taken steps towards the adoption of Linux.
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Linux distributions have also become popular with the newly founded [[netbook]] market, with many devices such as the [[Eee pc|ASUS Eee PC]] and [[Aspire One|Acer Aspire One]] shipping with customized Linux distributions pre-installed.
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Linux distributions have also become popular with the newly founded netbook market, with many devices such as the Eee pc and Aspire One shipping with customized Linux distributions pre-installed.
=== Current development ===
=== Current development ===

Revision as of 21:44, 23 October 2009

Linux is a free unix like operating system started by Linus Torvalds. This is the operating system of choice for the MTU LUG.

Contents

History

Unix

The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969 at AT&T's Bell Laboratories in the United States by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, and Joe Ossanna and first released in 1971. Unix was written in assembly language and later re-written in C in 1973 by Dennis Ritchie. Its wide availability and portability due to being written in C meant that it was widely adopted, copied and modified by academic institutions and businesses, with its design being influential on authors of other systems.Template:Citation needed

GNU

The GNU Project, started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, had the goal of creating a "complete Unix-compatible software system" composed entirely of free software. Work began in 1984.<ref name="gnu_announce">Template:Cite web</ref> Later, in 1985, Stallman created the Free Software Foundation and wrote the GNU General Public License (GNU GPL) in 1989. By the early 1990s, many of the programs required in an operating system (such as libraries, compilers, text editors, a Unix shell, and a windowing system) were completed, although low-level elements such as device drivers, daemons, and the kernel were stalled and incomplete.<ref name="gnu history">Template:Cite web</ref> Linus Torvalds has said that if the GNU kernel had been available at the time (1991), he would not have decided to write his own.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

MINIX

MINIX was a cheap minimal Unix-like operating system, designed for education in computer science, written by Andrew S. Tanenbaum (now Minix is free and redesigned also for “serious” use).

In 1991 while attending the University of Helsinki, Torvalds began to work on a non-commercial replacement for MINIX,<ref>Template:Cite newsgroup</ref> which would eventually become the Linux kernel.

Torvalds began the development of Linux on Minix and applications written for Minix were also used under Linux. Later Linux matured and it became possible for Linux to be developed under itself.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> Also GNU applications replaced all Minix ones because, with code from the GNU system freely available, it was advantageous if this could be used with the fledgling OS. Code licensed under the GNU GPL can be used in other projects, so long as they also are released under the same or a compatible license. In order to make the Linux kernel compatible with the components from the GNU Project, Torvalds initiated a switch from his original license (which prohibited commercial redistribution) to the GNU GPL.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Developers worked to integrate GNU components with Linux to make a fully functional and free operating system.<ref name="gnu history"/>

Commercial and popular uptake

Template:Main Today Linux distributions are used in numerous domains, from embedded systems to supercomputers, and have secured a place in server installations with the popular LAMP application stack.Use of Linux distributions in home and enterprise desktops has been expanding.They have also gained popularity with various local and national governments. The federal government of Brazil is well known for its support for Linux.News of the Russian military creating their own Linux distribution has also surfaced.Indian state of Kerala has gone so far as to make it mandatory for all state high schools to run Linux on their computers. People's Republic of China uses Linux exclusively as the operating system for its Loongson processor family to achieve technology independence. In Spain some regions have developed their own Linux distributions, which are widely used in education and official institutions, like gnuLinEx in Extremadura and Guadalinex in Andalusia. France and Germany have also taken steps towards the adoption of Linux.

Linux distributions have also become popular with the newly founded netbook market, with many devices such as the Eee pc and Aspire One shipping with customized Linux distributions pre-installed.

Current development

Torvalds continues to direct the development of the kernel. Stallman heads the Free Software Foundation, which in turn supports the GNU components. Finally, individuals and corporations develop third-party non-GNU components. These third-party components comprise a vast body of work and may include both kernel modules and user applications and libraries. Linux vendors and communities combine and distribute the kernel, GNU components, and non-GNU components, with additional package management software in the form of Linux distributions.

Ideology

Distributions

Linux as a whole is broken up into a number of different distributions. Each of these distributions uses the Linux kernel but provides different features.

Personal tools